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Best Music Stereo Underground
besthifi.pl Stereo Underground
besthifi.plJK Audio
STEREOSłUCHAWKIDIYPC AUDIOANALOG \ LAMPA
MUZYKAAUDIO SALONRECENZJE / OPINIEPOGADUCHY
Autor Temat: Rezystory,kondensatory,potencjometry,elementy determinujące dzwiek
stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:34

Also resistances affect the sound
"are modern trend" metal and metallic oxide of layer resistances regarding the tolerance, which temperature coefficients and the intoxication behavior the "old" coal mass and carbon film resistors consider. They are manufactured however predominantly with top caps from iron or with a nickel contacting (smd) and are thus ferrousmagnetic.
The bad sound characteristics of elements in the signal path (intermodulation distortion), magnetized by iron and nickel, the influence, should in High end circles actually admit to be!
Not coiled and cap-free coal mass -, coal mixture layer -, metal foils -, metal glaze and tantalum around of resistances are non-inductive and possess better impulse characteristics. From cost reasons, bad availableness or high manufacturing tolerance (selecting necessarily) they are however hardly used.
The sound profit with the employment in the correct place is considerable and comparable with the differences with condensers!
The employment of relatively strongly rushing coal mass resistances (e.g. all Bradlay OFF, Morganite, CCIT) provides for a very sonoren sound, which is warscheinlich jointly responsible for the warm sound of old tube amplifiers. This resistances are however only available as very expensive NOS commodity (new old Stock) and become with prices of up to 3, -€ per resistance acted! The tolerance deviation of these resistances is with up to 20% and depends besides on the air humidity.
Coal mixture layer resistances have comparable sound characteristics are however (still) available (tolerance deviation 5-10%).
Coal mass coal film and/or carbon film of resistances likewise still manufactured of: Company. Riken and Kiwame in Japan (High end prices!) This resistances rush less and are long-term-more stable.
Note: Some years ago the "Morganite" was dissipated still for 1 Pfennig/Pfennig as residual items.
A certain "sound portion" due to the noise is not to be laeugnen.
Resistances from solid leader material (e.g. metallic film) white usually only thermal noise up. Layer resistances from coal deliver a noise potential with direct current flow additionally . For this stromrauschen statistically varying transition resistances between individual crystals of the material are responsible. The frequency response is for instance 1/f, so that this effect comes particularly with deep frequencies to carrying (sparkle-rush). This kind of noise sounds itself better, than the "white noise" and is probably a reason for the fact that some people prefer kohlewiderstaende. Since the noise potential to the direct current by the resistance is proportional should this be kept as small as possible.
Thermal noise is, relatively independently of the type of the resistance, proportionally to the resistance value (ohm) and in reverse proportional to the achievement (2W types less than 0.5 W rush). This effect is smallest with wirewound resistors. Kohlewiderstaende form the tail light also here.
The inductance of a resistance due to the easily coiled metal or carbon film, and/or the bifilaren coil of a wirewound resistor is very small. Likewise it behaves with the capacity between the connecting leads. Both periodical parameters are usually negligible in the audio range (critical frequency within the MHz range).
Decision ducks an influence on the sound have the mechanical resonance characteristics. The mechanical suggestion is caused by the current flow and by sound effect from the outside (Mikrofonie). These oscillations lead to a change of the electrical signal flow and thus too rattle/clink. Coal mass resistances possess a homogeneous conductive body (graphite), which apparently positively affects the mechanical vibration response.
Best choice regarding "side effect-free" metal foils are -, metal glaze and tantalum around of resistances, which are supplied to tolerances of 0.1-2%.
Central price resistances such as HOLCO (metallic film with copper caps), Vishay DALE CMF55, VITROHM, (metal glaze), ISABELLENHUETTE, PBH (metal foil manganin), HFC (wirewound resistor).. and high price resistances such as SHINKOH, Soshin TAF, ICR, VTC (Tantalum), CADDOCK (thick film technology), Riken, raw POINT (Bifilare Drahdwiderstaende without caps).., Metallic film resistances with brass caps lie depending upon maximum stress and accuracy in price regions of: 1-15, -€ / piece.

Far companies audio resistances manufacturing: IRC (metal glaze), Fukoshima (well-known wise wire resistance), MPC (metal band resistances), Skelton, TDO (Metaloxid), Mills (metallic film), Shalcross, Tokyo the on
Note: Since short Holcos and Shinkohs are not any longer manufactured.
Also praised metallic film resistances of the company Beyschlag (Berlin), are underlaid for Welwyn RC55 these.
As SMD Bauelemt only very few of these high-quality resistances are available: Holco, IRC Tantalum and Vishay Bulk Foil - natural at a high price!
How always helps only heard also here!
With loudspeaker frequency switches (also in highest price regions) in the signal path, before the Hochtoener, from cost reasons or ignorance of metallic oxide layer resistances MOX (with stahlkappen) or wirewound resistors (CR-Ni-wire, cemented) are still inserted. We begin already since long metal foil resistances .
With us only non-magnetic, klanglich selected become in the signal path
Coal mixture layer -, metal foil or metal-glazed film of resistances assigned, or if possible up Resistances does without (direct coupling).


_________________
"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A.Einstein














"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:35
The condenser, a sound-determining element
In to what extent a condenser behaves approximately ideally, (small losses) depends on the structure and the used materials.
The conductive poles (leader, plates) consist mostly of aluminum (aluminium), tin (SN) or copper (cu). In exotic cases also silver (AG). As insulator (dielectric) with electrolytic capacitors (Elkos) one is used with electrolyte (liquid) pushed aluminum oxide foil, with tantalum Elkos the material tantalum oxide, ceramic(s) with ceramic(s) types and with foil condensers a plastic foil. In exceptional cases oil-soaked, or wachsimraegniertes paper (unfortunately industrially no longer very common) becomes, or mica (English: Mica) assigned. With the latters a very thin silver layer is vapour-deposited on mica as leader material, why they are called also Silver Micas.
The plastic foils consist mostly of Polyaethylenterephtalat PEN, polyester PET, polycarbonate PC, polypropylene PP, polystyrene HP with label name the Styroflex, and/or Polyphenylensulfid PPS. Very rarely teflon ptfe or silvered Mika foil begun.
The plastics (PC, PP) result in the as far as possible standardized designations together with aluminum foil: KC, KP, FKP, PPF. It concerns a metallized plastic foil (PEN, PET, PC, PP, PPS): MKS o. MKY, MKT o. MKH, MKC, MKP o. PPM o. MPP o. MFP and/or MKY o. MKS.
MP condensers (metallic paper) possess paper as dielectric, which either oil-soaked, oil-impregnated or hard wax-impregnated. Older (1980 ago) oelpapierkondensatoren (PIO: PAPERS in oil capacitor) can contain the PCB poisonous in the case of fire! There are it in the cylindrical aluminum cup with screw connection, in the rectangular aluminum cup, or more rarely than axial condensers.
The capacity rises with the surface of the parallel ladder and the isolatormaterialabaengigen dielectric constant. One by sand-yield-like laminating (leader, insulator, leader, insulator...) receives as large a surface as possible in right parallelepiped or cylinder form. The choice of the insulator (dielectric) is always a compromise between capacity increase (- > small design with large capacity) and the quality loss due to the dielectric dissipation factor oppositely behave.
The loss-poorest condensers are developed with mica, teflon, polystyrene or polypropylene. S.g. Dissipation factor D is called also Dissipation factor DF, or angle tangent delta. It indicated with 1kHz and 20°C and lies with foil condensers within the range of 0.005-0.00001 with Elkos: > 0.3-0.02 with 120Hz (the smaller the better!). The dissipation factor rises with the frequency. The reciprocal value of this characteristic is called quality or quality factor. Sometimes the DF also indicated in per cent e.g.: 0.1% = 0.001.
The causes of the losses are apart from the dielectric losses the structure-conditioned errors: Small existing inductance (technologytechnology technology), the resistance of the connecting leads and their contacting (soldered connections and/or. ferrousmagnetic materials). The resistance losses, in particular with Elkos, are combined as serial verlustwiderstand into the value ESR (Equivalent Series Resistor). This lies in the order of magnitude of 5-30mOhm. Inductance (order of magnitude 10-200nH) causes that a condenser works starting from an upper critical frequency (resonant frequency) no more than such, but than coil. The upper critical frequency can be with Elkos with 10kHz! With foil condensers the value is with some MHz.
THERE a further, rarely in the data sheet (only for MIL) indicated loss characteristic, is the dielectric absorption (in %) (> > cables). It describes a kind memory feature with condensers (recovery volume-meet, MEMORY effect). Seems smaller THERE to be present even if the tangent delta is small. Smallest values supply HP, PP, mica and teflon condensers. The order of magnitude is enough from approx.. 0.01% with high-quality PP condensers to > 10% with Elkos and MPs. Ungepolte Elkos are somewhat better. Often older high-estimated oelpapierkondensatoren surprisingly possess a quite high since value from 2 to 20%! Tolerable is actually only one value to 1%. Fortunately the influence of a high since value can be reduced by a low impedance wiring strongly (e.g. with the employment in frequency switches).
A high-quality condenser is supplied with a capacity tolerance of 0.5-5% (Elkos 10-20%).
Dielectric | Constant one (etar ) | Dissipation factor (tangent delta)
Ceramic(s) > 50 0.001
PP 2,3 0.001 0.00005
HP of 2,5 0.0001-0.0003
Mica 4-8 0.0001-0.0002
Oiled paper 3-4 0.0001-0.0002
Air 1 < 0.00001
C[pf ] = 0,00885 * etar* A/A A=Flaeche in mm&#178;, a=Abstand in mm
For the audio employment the linearity and the hysteresis characteristics over the frequency are crucial.
Before trip into the world of the magnetism: The characteristics of magnetic materials &#181;r change with the field strength and thus with the river. S.g. the B-H or hysteresis curve represents the magnetic flow density and/or induction as a function of the field strength. It can be taken up over the following connection electrically with a Osziloskop: U(t) = L di/dt (river i into inductance = x axis, tension at inductance = y axis). It has usually the form of two flattens, transferred s-foermigen curves, which are connected above and down and describe a surface. Ideally last only a straight line.
Also condensers possess due to the not ideal dielectric etar characteristics in analogy to magnetic world in a "hysteresis curve" to be represented can. The connection can be taken up likewise electrically with a Osziloskop: i(t) = C du/dt (tension u at the condenser = x axis, river i in the Kondesator = y axis). Are it shown also here, if also not so clearly, curves and even surfaces.
In both worlds change the upward gradient of the curves (L, and/or C), the s-form of the curves (linearity errors) and the surface between the curves (losses) with the frequency!
Oiled paper types offer here the best linearity and have quasi no hysteresis characteristics. They are closely followed types of Polystyren (KS) and polypropylene (PP). Ceramic capacitors, tantalum and aluminum Elkos show clear Nichlinearitaeten and hysteresis behavior, which are also still strongly periodical.
A further quality parameter is the impulse maximum stress (Slew rate) of a condenser. This indicated in V/&#181;s and gives a statement about it to what extent a condenser for the processing of impulses, thus signals with fast climbing time (square wave signals), is suitable. This value does not appear very frequently in the data sheet of a condenser. The range of values is with 1..10000 V/&#181;s ! and is proportional to the tension strain and acceptable current load. The best values supply here MKP, FKP and kp of condensers. The employment of these condensers is inevitable with digital transmission circuits (S/P DIF) and in high-quality loudspeaker frequency switches. Into these also still MP condensers come into question.
Unfortunately in the data sheet of a condenser did not describe, but in the audio employment very importantly, are the Mikrofonieempfindlichkeit and the mechanical resonance behavior. The layering (conductive foil dielectric.) can turn out by the current flow, by electrostatic forces and through from the outside influencing mechanical forces (sound) in motion. Develops inevitably a modulation with the information signal with the consequence of rattles/clinks. In the discipline mechanical absorption behavior MP condensers, which as dielectric oil-soaked paper contained seem, to be very good. There are also MKV condensers of newer design the oil contained. Tin foil condensers (KP-SN) are likewise recommended.
Problem of long-term Konstanz: By drainage the capacity of the Elkos is reduced!, also oelpapierkondensatoren can be affected by it. With Elkos those is maximally indicated to ambient temperature for this reason. Standard is 85°C with high-quality types is enough the value to 105°C and/or 125°C. The life utility of a 85° Elkos amounts to when the used under 20° up to 20000 hours. Increases the Umgebungstemperator to 40° sinks in such a way it to 5000.
The construction volume is proportionally to the capacity and the tension strain and in reverse proportional to dissipation factor. A large design the danger disturbances to be conditionally always caught, or which parallel arranged condensers affect each other mutually (cross talk by capacitive coupling) and/or by Mikrofonie are affected.
The tension strain is separately indicated for equal and alternating voltage. The alternating voltage value is with approx.. 50-60% DC voltage value. THERE a useful side effect of high tension strain is a low ESR and a concomitantly smaller dissipation factor D and. Condensers with high tension strain have usually better acoustic characteristics.
The correct polarity is necessary actually only with Elkos. These are meant also for the enterprise of DC voltages with small wechselspannungsanteil. Unfortunately in addition, with foil condensers klangliche differences show up ever after like rum he are operated. This cannot be explained at present. Unfortunately the print is not always an orientation. There only one test and an inquiry with the manufacturer help.
DC bias: Aluminum Elkos and tantalum Elkos, which have to actually look for nothing in the signal path, improve its characteristics (smaller hysteresis) by put on DC voltage. In vacuum tube circuits generally high DC voltages rest against the koppelkondensatoren (e.g. Annodenauskopplung). This polarization DC voltage does not cause according to experience with foil and oiled paper types, or only small ones, sound advantages. I.e. as klanglich well judged condenser shows here his qualities also as koppelkondensator at the entrance of a transistor output stage!
The area of application of the individual types:
In the signal path (koppelkondensator) of a "High end chain" may not be used Elkos, ceramic capacitors and Tantalelkos (these distort)! Here only MKP are applicable -, kp Styroflex and high-quality oiled paper types.
Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (Elkos) are intended only for the employment at DC voltage in power packs (to sieving and as energy stores and/or load condensers). Elkos rush relatively strongly and cause signal distortions.
In high-quality audio components should in the power pack only good industrial commodity e.g. of: Philips and/or. BC, Siemens, Vishay-Roederstein, Aerovox, Rubicon, F&T, Jamicon and comparable quality with low ESR and foil types joined in parallel (bypass) are used. With inferior commodity sound losses are pre-programmed.
The "sound" of Elkos is temperature-dependent (temperature-dependent ionic conduction in the dielectric). The best temperature range is with approx.. 40° C. This is probably a reason for the preheating time with amplifiers.
Elkos for the employment in switch power packs are intended, are also in similar audio power packs of advantage.
It is of advantage more mehrer smaller Elkos in parallel connection to operate (the ESR is reduced).
New AUDIO Elko types such as Jelmax Rubicon BLACK GATE (graphite foil condensers), BHC Aerovox Slit Foil (slot foils) and t-Net (4Pol) can bring dramatic improvement. This however with tenfold costs! Bipolar BLACK GATE (BGs) type of NX ONE is suitable also as koppelkondensatoren. BGs have 10-300 better intoxication and Verzerrungseigenschften and internal resistance depending upon type around the factor are smaller around the factor 2-10.
The relatively inexpensive ELNA (ROS, Silmic/ROA, Cerafine/RJH/RSH, star GET/RJJ, DynaCap) is likewise recommendable.
These types were developed particularly for audio's application. They are provided and it measures against Mikrofonie were met with OFC copper connections. Sanyo OS-CON are exeptionally also well suitable as Abblockkondensatoren in digital circuits.
The inexpensive Nichikon PL and Panasonic forms a further positive exception FC/HFQ/HFZ/HC, which are comparable to the ELNAs.
Tantalum Elkos and ceramic capacitors are suitable for the DC voltage buffering of individual stages in HF and digital circuits! Ceramic capacitors (X7R, NPO, Sibatit) can be used at best still to the Abblockung of HF and as Koppellkondensatoren with sinusoidal HF.
Gold Cap's (Panasonic)/ SuperCaps (NuinTEK, Panasonic) / UltraCaps (Epcos): These condensers are used like Akkus. They exhibit an extremely high capacity compared with the normal Elkos. With gold Caps the capacity reaches up to 50Farad (typical 0.5-1F). SuperCaps bring it on up to 50F and UltraCaps on unbelievable 100-5000F (1F = 1,000,000 &#181;F!). Unfortunately the tension strain is strongly limited: With Goldcap's on max. 5.5V, with SuperCap and UltraCap max. 2.3-2.7V. GoldCaps and SuperCaps has a quite high internal resistance of up to 0.5Ohm. With the UltraCaps is internal resistance clearly lower (< 1mOhm). They can supply very high Entladestroehme. The price is however also quite high (1200F for approx.. 100&#8364;).
Gold Caps often become in digital circuits, as a Akku assigned, which is constantly reloaded over a resistance. Naturally HF suited condensers are necessary as bypass.
Photo Flash Elkos exhibit an extreme tension strain (DC 200 - 400V). The capacity lies in the usual framework (100 - 470 &#181;F). These high tensions are needed, in order to ignite flash tubes. They are to be found thus in each camera. They are likewise used like a Akku, which with (Blitz)Bedarf is loaded. Warscheinlich have you also a relatively high internal resistance.
For digital circuits small Wima FKP, FK and MKS is a good choice. Because of the missing connecting leads (small inductance, ESL) are here SMD condensers of advantage (metalisierter polypropylene film).
Into frequency switches bipolar Elkos can be used in uncritical places (thus not in the signal path), e.g. with correction networks and parallel to the loudspeaker. As condenser before central and Hochtoenern they are purest sound killers. This Tonfrequenzelkos is ungepolt, thus suitable for alternating voltage. There are it in the execution with smooth, or rough anode. The smooth anode help to somewhat better characteristics, conditionally in addition, a larger design.
By parallel connection the capacity adds itself. If the capacity is to be erhoet by parallel connection considerably, then as only as possible condensers of same type and structure should be who-turned. An inferior condenser of high capacity (e.g. Elko) a high-quality condenser (HP, PP or kp type) with small value is parallel switched (bypass C) can the quality and mostly also the sound be improved (applies also to power pack Elkos). The reason: The resonant frequency is shifted upward.
Series connection (capacity is reduced), in particular with a cable connection (AC AC coupling), should be avoided! The klangliche quality of series connection is ever worse than those of the worst condenser!

The klanglichen differences of condensers in the signal path can be dramatic.
They can be explained to a large extent by the connections mentioned above (dissipation factor DF and THERE, impulse firmness, linearity, Mikrofonie).
A condenser in the signal path of the preamplifiers or the output stage klanglich convinced, can fail sometimes in the frequency switch before the Hochtoener klanglich, or in reverse. Correct preselection and more extensively heard is thus inevitable. The best results are obtained with MKP, kp, Styroflex and MP condensers (oil-soaked).
An effective means for the improvement of a condenser can be the parallel connection of a very high-quality condenser. This kind of the wiring is called bypass condenser. This bypass C has a very small capacity opposite the basis condenser (e.g. 0,1 - 100 nF). As bypass for condensers in the signal path are suitable, KP's, Styroflex, as well as mica and/or Mica's. As bypass for power packs all foil condensers and also the Micas are applicable. In particular during signal bypass wiring not inevitably an improvement is guaranteed. Often a homogeneous sound result is reached only by employmentone, high-quality condenser. The sound-relevant characteristics of the two condensers must complement each other, form a homogeneous unit. There only trying helps!
With bypass condensers (e.g. mica, kp, Styroflex) worked may these in loudspeaker switches maximally according to experience 5-6% of the main capacity exhibit. With entrance ouple condensers the relationship should be still smaller. To clarify one can do itself this over the critical frequency of the bypass high-pass. This is attached: fg[kHz ] = 160,000/(R[kOhm ] * C[nF ]). Bsp.1: A 1nF bypass condenser (parallel to an entrance ouple condenser) at 47kOhm input impedance works thus already starting from a critical frequency of fg~3.4kHz!. Bsp.2: 100nF before a 8Ohm Hochtoener work only off: fg~200kHz.
A high DF becomes apparent in an indistinct masked illustration. Affects the dynamic structure of the music more highly THERE. The rendition works imprecisely, compressed and a little tone quality-rich. The impulse firmness has similar influence with low impedance loads (high river). Mikrofonieeffekte and thus resonances make the klangbild sharply and roughly, the high clay/tone range work covered and unnaturally.
Oiled paper types are not without reservation recommendable. Due to the high of old types they can in high impedance circuits often discoloured, very softly and even zugehangen THERE to sound. It charms in the in the middle a very colourful klangbild, the basic clay/tone range is very bodyful often, details in the heights however thereby unfortunately very often remains on the distance. If they are from new production and improve THERE and if DF of values exhibit, then they sound often quite bright within the high clay/tone range. Some supply proper an Loudnes effect.
A very positive forms the type praised approximately around the globe: SPRAQUE 196P Vitamin q .
Some (also high-quality) foil types bend klangbild within the high clay/tone range to "gekuenstelten". Straight ones in the employment as condensers before the Hochtoener often oversubscribe it with complex music program in the upper frequency range. They play often on a very high level, in addition, sometimes unmusikalisch, analytically and coldly.
The klanglich best foil condensers surprisingly possess the axial design. These are only manufactured however in mass production on "old" machines. Possibly is the deformation procedure of klanglichem disadvantage. This is partly necessarily if a approximately wound condenser into a rectangular housing fit must. Rectangular housings need less place and can be equipped better automatically.
Condensers, in particular Oelpapiertyen, need a bringing in time of approx.. 100 hours to it to the full rendition quality erbluehen. Before a klangliches judgement is passed upon a condenser of this design, it should have been at least 12 hours with music program or an intoxication signal in enterprise.
Description of sound:
With the change to good foil condensers changed (improves?) itself, with the first clay/tone audibly, the dissolution of detail and the spatial illustration. Often however to deplore that is the tonal balance from the equilibrium turns out. The klangbild will too analytic, the voice against gift becomes more thinly, more bodyless. The bass rendition is under-exposed in relation to the central/high clay/tone range. The high clay/tone range seems to be almost fokusiert. Impulsive music works dynamically and fast in addition, often too hard and unnaturally. Sometimes the klangbild breaks everything open with more complex music passages proper, works then nervously and imprecisely.
Very good condensers open sound spheres, which if one did not experience them yet, not to be considered possible: The low clay/tone rendition becomes outline and more bodyful, the central clay/tone range more cleanly. In addition, the heights get jet strength, it work more quietly. The music separates better from the loudspeakers. It is air on the stage. Tones end cleanly and disappear in the nothing. The energy distribution of the music is inspiring homogeneous. The klangbild remains under all circumstances stable. Briefly expressed: The music works authentically, naturally and in music.
To experience we could do this only with very few condenser types. Most High Tech Folienkondensatoren (MKP and kp) was far from it. Homogeneous often those did not play completely in such a way "perfect" polystyrene and polyester condensers. Some oiled paper types many likewise through. Naturally we could not test all types specified down. Some secured klangliche experiences and realizations came also from colleagues and audiophilen friends.
We want to be allowed to do, and, here also no recommendation deliver, and/or very expensive condensers publicly devaluations. We may betray one however: We were very surprised the klangliche distance of a really good (does not umbedingt excessively expensive) condenser to those are as large, which are to be found usually in the considerable High end devices. It depends also here apparently mainly on the price and deliverability.
Manufacturer list:
Note: The manufacturer and the type are specified. The sequence is arbitrarily, thus without evaluation:
Oelpapierkondensatoren: Jensen and audio note with aluminum -, copper or silberfolie, Ampohm, pro Cap (silberfolie), Sequa, intertechnology (IT), ASC...?
Foil condensers:
TRT (Tomorrow's Research Today): Wonder Cap, InfiniCap (Signature, SETI, Ultima, Almost Ultima, Economy), DynamiCap
REL Cap (Reliable Capacitors): PPFX s MultiCap, RTX, blank, AudioCap: PPF, PPT, blank, PPMF, Exotica teflon TFT, PCU Exotica Cupper Foil PP film, Exotica prime, rear-Rel
Spraque: Orange drop 715P (kp) or 716P PE or PP
Brines: Nearly Cap PP,
SCR: PP,
Ansar: Supersound SPX (special MKP condensers: low ESR and mikrofoniearm),
Hovland: MusiCap,
Soshin: V2A (Silver Mica),
Mundorf: M-Cap, m-Cap supreme, KP-SN
IT: Audyn Cap, Audyn Cap plus, KP-SN.
SCR acoustics: MKP, KP-SN,
WIMA: MKP-4, MKP-10, FKP, Snubber
ROE, ERO (Vishay Roederstein): KP OF 1830, KP OF 1836, MKP 1837, MKP 1846,
Westlake: Styroflex,
Leclanche: PPM,
Eton: PPM,
Kimber: Kimber Cap
Arcotronics: Kp of 72,
ICW: metalisierte PP, ASMPF series,
audience: AuriCap,
Bennic: Type XPP and PMT,
Cornell double: PP,
Epcos: Kp and MKP,
ICEL: Kp and MKP,
Ampohm: FP-APPROX.,
V-Cap (teflon film with tin foil),
Jupiter,
Beeswax,
etc.??
There are also oil-soaked polypropylene condensers:
MKV types (engine condensers) e.g. by Siemens,
ASC: PPM+Oil
Mundorf: MCap supreme silver/oil (oil-soaked silberfolien MKP)
NOS commodity (New Old Stock):
ERO: Kp of 1832, kp of 1834, KP1836, MKP 1841, MKP 1842, MKP 1845, MKT 1813, MKC 1864, EROFOL, EROID, old polyesters.
Styroflex by NFS, EMZ and Siemens.
Cornell Dubilier: Black Cat,
Spraque: Black Beauty, 730P,
Siemens: B23500, B23501, MKP B32650, MKP B32655,
Some foil types of: Western Electric, AT&T, Aerovox...
Oiled paper of: Spraque, CSC (Vitamin q 196P, 188P, 91P, 191P), KEMET, Mallory, west Cap CP05A1, ICAR PR20, SP25, CCR25, Caratt, Sangamo, shape, Ducati, Wireless Thomas, Pyramid, Leclanche...
Russian oiled paper or MKPs ...
Old ERO, Siemens, Valvo, Philips, Bosch, Frako, F&G, CCIT, SEL, MF... Miltaer or BP MP's in the round or rectangular metal cup
etc..
Some these types e.g. the MP's was manufactured already 1955 and is today, also as used condensers, very desired.
Elkos:
Jelmax Rubicon: BLACK GATE type: To FK/K, PEEP, SKZ/WKZ (high volt), Ungepolt: N/NX (High quality)
Rubicon YXA, YXF, YXG, ZL, ZLH
ELNA: ROS, Silmic/ROA, Cerafine/RJH/RSH, star GET/RJJ/DynaCap
Sanyo: OS-CON, SG
Nichikon: PL
Panasonic: FC/HFQ/HFZ/HC
BHC Aerovox: Slit Foil, t-Net
Philips and/or. BC,
EPCOS (Siemens),
Vishay Roederstein (ROE),
Vishay BCcomponents 128 SAL RPM (80% wechselspannungsanteil stand)
FROLYT
JAMICON
F&T (Fischer&#932;)
Jensen Four polarize Elko
J & J
LCR
United Chemicon LXV
More bent
NOS Elko types: Mallory Twistlok, Sprague atom, Frako
Mica (Silver Mica): Siemens, Richard years, El Menco, Micamold, Sangamo
The price margin of a condenser is enough depending upon value and quality of 0.15 (with standard types) to 40, - &#8364; (with special audio condensers) per piece! With Exoten such as oiled paper with copper or silberfolie of 100, - until 1000, - &#8364; per piece!!
A 10000&#181;FBlack gate can up to 360&#8364; cost.
SMD condensers are however always second (or last) choice, there these only as MKT, MKC, ceramic(s), tantalum or electrolyte Elko be available and besides with ferrousmagnetic nickel contactings are provided. Within the digital range however SMD condensers, due to the missing connecting leads, have which always represent a small inductance, clear advantages.
With us in the signal path only special one, klanglich selected axial WESTLAKE Styroflexkondensatoren and special Oelpapiertyen is used, or DC-COUPLED if possible.
With loudspeaker systems we begin in the central and high clay/tone range oiled paper, MKP and kp condensers.
(we thank Mr. Thorsten let us delete for its tips regarding Ansar, Black gate, OS Con, Elna Silmic/Cerafine/Starget..)


"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:37
Kable
Signalkabel and your characteristics
The electrical music signal consists of a mixture of rivers (electron movement) of different frequency (5 Hz-100 kHz) and amplitude (1 well - 1 mA and/or with loudspeakers to 10 A), which must at the same time pass (in correct temporal relationship = phase) the cable.

Periodical parameter:

Every time two leaders to be parallel led a parallel capacitance C develops (in pF/m). Stromdurchflpossene ladder thus always develop a magnetic field and a longitudinal inductance L (in &#181;H/m). These provide for a nonlinear envelope delay within the transmission range (approx. 5 cycles per second &#8211; 100 kHz), i.e. signal stream of different frequencies need different times around the cable to happen. Hence that impulses are worn , the rendition follows inhomogenously and the spatial illustration becomes indistinct. A further periodical phenomenon contributing to it is the skin effect. In a leader current portions with high frequencies are pushed to the surface of the leader, this lead likewise to envelope delay distortions.

Frequency-independent parameters:

(approximately) the frequency-independent characteristics of a cable are the longitudinal resistance R (in mOhm/m) and the parallel conductance G (in &#181;S/m). They represent the dissipation factors (Dissipations Factor) of the line (Ds=R/Omega*L and Dq=G/Omega*C) together with L and C, which should be as small as possible. To neglect thereby the losses of the insulator (dielectric)are not infinitely high that, and is more exactly regarded also not frequency-independent!

The insulator is permanently in the electrical alternating field (between the two leaders, Poland). The molecules of the insulator are moved with the field change (pole reversal) and polarized thus (material-dependent dielectric constant). These material shifts extract from the music signal energy (dielectric dissipation factor) periodically, since this procedure cannot run off infinitely fast.

Polyethylene (SPE), usually foamed, teflon (ptfe) and air is suitable, there the dissipation factor (tangent delta) small and hardly a capacity increase took place as dielectric very well (this is desired only with the element condenser). The insulator PVC frequently used with cables is conceivablly badly suitable. The dissipation factor is high, the free electrons of the material provides for zero crossover distortions, the leader chemically is attacked (free hello genes), but it is economical. Foamed Polyuretan (PURE), which in inexpensive Coaxkabeln is often used, is a good compromise.
Exotic Isolationen is manufactured from silk or untreated cotton.

By suggestion of the cable with sound a modulation finds instead of (Mikrofonie). I.e. the opposite ladder can be moved in the distance to each other in the clock of the music slightly, which leads volume-dependent modulation of the signal to the change of capacity and thus to frequency and.

The technical data:

With Interconect cables the capacity is with approx.. 50-100 pF/m (in exceptions to approx.. 1000 pF), the Induktitaet in the Groessenordung of 0,3-1 &#181;H/m, the resistance with 20-100 mOhm/m the conductance with approx.. 0,01-1 &#181;S/m (the conductance Siemens is the reciprocal value of the resistance). The characteristic impedance can be computed from L and C:
Z = Wurzel(L/C), e.g.: L=0.4&#181;H, C=70pF - > Z=75Ohm.
With loudspeaker cables inductance should not exceed 0.1-0.5 &#181;H/m and the resistance 50 mOhm/m.

The capacity of a cable rises with the size of the surface and with the reduction of the distance of the two leaders to each other.
With inductance is it exactly turned around, the further and the back leader remove lie apart, the more largely is inductance. The resistance depends on the resistivity of the used leader material (with silver smallest) and on the cross section (the more largely the smaller). The best leader silver, has one in relation to copper approx.. 15% improve conductivity. The deriving value and/or isolation value depends on the used dielectric. The insulator has a Ohm's resistance from some mega to Giga ohms.

Naeherungsformeln: a=Abstand (center to center) in mm, D, D=kleiner, large diameter in mm
Twin lead without screen:
C[pF/m ] = 12 * etar / log(2a/d)
L[&#181;H/m ] = 0.92*log(2a/d)
Coaxleitung:
C[pF/m ] = 24,1 * etar / log(D/d)
L[&#181;H/m ] = 0.46*log(D/d)
Line resistance:
R[mOhm*m/mm&#178; ] = Kupfer=17.8, silver = 16,5 e.g.. 3 m with 2.5 mm&#178; Kufer = 21.4 mOhm (with 20 degrees C)

Dielectric | Constant one (etar ) | Dissipation factor (tangent delta)
PVC 5-8 0.1-0.15
PURELY 3-4 0.015-0.06
PE 2,3 0.0005
Ptfe 2 0.0002-0.0005
Silk 1,4 < 0.0005
Air 1 < 0.00001

The total characteristic of the cable:

This becomes by the structure: Arrangement of the leaders (coaxially, parallel, cross-interconnected, twisted, interlaced.), Distance of the leaders to each other, with or without screen and the materials: Material (copper, silver, goldlegierung), kind of the leader Lizte or massif, degree of purity and/or crystalline structure (normal, OFC, PCOCC, 6..8N copper, 4N or 5N pure silver), electrical resistance, insulating material (dielectric: PVC, PE, PP, teflon (ptfe), silicone, lacquers, fabrics), microphone IE sensitivity of the gesammten arrangement and skin effect with to large cable diameter (diameter < 0.8mm, or flat line) determines.

The goal:

As balanced a relationship of the parameters as possible ( R/L=G/C) minimizes the Widergabefehler to each other. Unfortunately this is nearly impossible, since the parameters affect each other mutually and the source and the load must be also still considered. Experiences have shown that NF small signal cables (Interconect cables) as low a capacity as possible and as low an inductance as possible with at the same time low Ohm's resistance should exhibit loudspeaker cable (NF Grosssignalkabel).

A screen when NF lines is not necessarily necessary with high level connections (CD - > amplifiers). For very small signals, like them with pick-ups the rule are (< 0.5mV), and during HF transmission is however necessary they. With high frequency signals the screen must be very close and reciprocally attached. Hum troubles (magnetic fields) could be achieved only by ferrousmagnetic screen (ferrousmagnetic materials e.g. iron). Better a reasonable uncoupling is, i.e. far away from trafos and mains and as short as possible and no loops shifts.

With the coaxial cable the signal is carried via the interior leader and the screen, that cannot fulfill thus their function as screen to no more. The use of parallel-symmetrical cables with additional screen is better. The screen is then connected at the source side directly with mass and at the Empaengerseite by a 10Ohm resistance. On one side do not as only as possible attach (bag screen), this can to HF receipt lead!

Additionally with loudspeaker cables a low Ohm's resistance (high cross sections of the cable) affects the break-even factor (control of the amplifier of the loudspeakers). Low = high absorption = controlled, dry bass against gift!

Plant-caused sound differences:

Always also the output impedance of the transmitter (Za) and the feed impedance of the receiver (CPU) has a strong influence on the transmission circuit. The output resistance of equipment (RA) must be larger as low as possible and the input impedance and/or load resistance (RH) in the factor at least 100 (over match, break-even factor highly). Both should be as frequency-independent as possible.
A frequency independence with loudspeakers cannot be avoided unfortunately, as constant a impedance process as possible however always is by advantage. Here one can hope only for a cleanly designed frequency switch!

With preamplifiers and sources of music the practicable value of the output resistance (RA) is with 10-100 ohms with output stages should not it 0,1 ohms not exceed (the lower the better!). The input impedance (RH) of receivers naturally lies between 10-50 kOhm (the smaller the better!). The inductance and capacity of the exit should be moeglichtst small!
Unfortunately are not the values, as with the HF technology usually, fixed in a standard. Some sources of program have an output resistance of 2000Ohm, the output resistance of a tube output stage can some ohms amount to, which means strong negative interactions with the cable!!

The output resistance (RA) of the source forms a low-pass filter together withthe Kabelkapazitae t (Ck) and the entrance capacity (Cp) of the receiver. fG = 1/(6.28*Ra*Ck+Cp) example: Ra=2kOhm, Ck+Cp=2nF - > critical frequency fG ~ 40 kHz.

Often the source has an output ouple condenser and the receiver an entrance ouple condenser (AC coupling).
The two condensers (approx., Ce) are positioned by the signalkabel connected in series. This causes that the resulting value changes. The new capacity is smaller: Cn = Ca*Ce/(Ca+Ce). This can shift possibly the lower critical frequency upward (less bass). The new lower critical frequency concerning the input impedance RH amounts to: fG = 1/(6.28*Re*Cn).

Many more badly however, that is the quality (quality, loss angle) of the resulting condenser suffers! (series connection: Ca+Rk+Lk+Ce). This leads inevitably to losses of fine design and fine dynamics. Thus as always as possible connect DC-DC, DC-AC or AC-DC! During DC DC coupling must be naturally paid attention to DC voltage liberty!

The internal koppelkondensatoren often are from cheap quality. Often at the exit from place and cost reasons a Elko (approx. 10-100 &#181;F) is inserted, as well as at the entrance (approx. 0.1-4.7 &#181;F) from cost reasons an inexpensive foil condenser (0.15-0.5&#8364;). A high-quality condenser costs tenfold!. Here each quantity sound potential is given away. Bad, strongly lossy condensers change the sound toward soft, less Deteilreichtum (with Elkos) or toward cold with oversubscribed and hard high clay/tone range (with simple foil condensers).

To neglect are not the internal equipment cable connections (e.g. in loudspeaker boxes). These can play a crucial role opposite the external wiring. Often these are together longer than the external wiring, besides of cheap quality, and thus sound killer!

Mass balance stream: The transmitter and receiver are on different mass potential flow in such a way a balancing current over the cable connection. This river mixes with the signal stream (modulation) and leads to sound changes. A cause is usually mains supply or HF stray effect.

If at your plant cables with other characteristics sound better or worse,
so can be this because of a compensation of opposite characteristics.
With each error minimization a cable will bring klangliche advantages to the chain with neutral, highly detailed rendition however.

Digital transmission circuits:

Here the problems lie somewhat differently, there here square wave signals with constant amplitude (0,5 V with S/P DIF, approx.. 3-7 V with AES/EBU) and frequency (5,6 MHz with CD, 11,2 MHz with DVD) with fast flanks (approx. 5-30 LV) to be transferred must count here characteristics such as HF range, low capacity, wave running time, good screen and characteristic impedance (root (L/C)).

The range should not be as high as possible around the square wave signal to affect. At HF (high frequency) must be worked with characteristic impedance adjustment. The source exit, the cable with the plugs and the source entrance must exhibit the same values (with digital audio 75 and/or. 110 ohms). Deviations can lead to reflections and thus to intermodulation with the consequence of phase jitters. Silvered copperKoaxkabel, with substantial or as braid (StaCu) implemented interior leader and teflon isolation proved as very positive. On the screen under no circumstances (CE), there otherwise HF up to 250MHz (harmonic waves) may to do without to be radiated here be able. These are caught by other HIFI devices and by intermodulation develop rattle/clink!
The sound differences by digital cables are to be attributed probably mainly to different jitter characteristics. Which leads with a digital cable mainly to jitters (mismatching, is to small range, envelope delay distortions, Mikrofonie, memory effects by dielectric losses.), still weitestgehends unclearly. Ready-made solutions there are not unfortunately, there helps only heard also here (- > further information)

Other sound influences:

In both worlds the plug connectors are not negligible! Characteristics such as contact transition resistance, boundary layers by material transitions (brass nickel gold), soldered connections, capacity and inductance, as well as ferrousmagnetic characteristics change likewise the sound.
With digital cables the Cinch plug not specified after characteristic impedance (< > 75 ohms) can contribute to which is also an falseadapted Koaxkabel (e.g. 50Ohm) of advantage. The BNC plug connector usual in the HF measuring technique is more professional (- > see also digital exit).

Cables need a bringing in time of approx.. to reach 30-45 minutes around their full efficiency.
(information to the cause: Mikration, solvent core, grain boundaries, polar impurities, tribochemische influence,..)

Why cables from purest copper or pure silver?

Generally the effect is neglected that smallest (predominantly high frequency) rivers by cable impurities it lost go and/or are affected! This effect is similar to the neutral zones with semiconductors (assumption distortions with output stages).
This becomes understandable, if one regards the order of magnitude. With transmission dynamics of 90 railways the smallest rivers amount to with NF cables approx.. 100 well and with loudspeaker lines approx.. 100 &#181;A (0.0000001..0.0001 A).
These impurities are: Oxidation - > copper/silver crystal transitions, foreign atoms: Oxygen, free atoms in the insulator - > diffusion effects in the cable.

The molecules of leader materials have a crystal structure. The flowing through river must overcome the grain boundaries, which leads to losses. The same applies to other impurities.

Due to its mechanical production line (crystalline structure) cables possess a direction of travel. Normally this is with an arrow away from the source marked. This is not the case, or from distrust, and/or curiosity can be determined this also by hearing tests.

Cables are in the smaller measure also Mikrofonieanfaellig. In sound field the ladder are squeezed together, which changes the capacity.

The inhomogeneity of the current distribution rises with the cross section of the leader. A cause: The electrons urge causes by the self-magnetic field outward.

Static loading of the insulator can likewise lead to the sound influence.

Loudspeaker wiring:

Whether Biwiring (4-adrig) should or conventionally two-vein, at the rendition chain is tested. With Biwiring the frequency switch is divided into two branches (bass and high clay/tone), which are separately led up to the amplifier. So different specialized cable types can be used however with as same a sound characteristics as possible (identical Design ) and the amplifiers see quasi over each cable a loudspeaker chassis with its switch. We made thereby best experiences.

The clear advantages from Biwiring are:

* The signal to the high clay/tone range is freely due by modulation effects (intermodulation) to the higher river of the bass range. I.e. the smaller and higher-frequency river of the Hochtoeners cannot, as it is with a normal wiring the case from the bass signal, due to which common ground wire is modulated.
* With separately shifted cables for deep and high clay/tone range also still the magnetic ouple effects (magnetic cross modulation) are void.
* Control amplifiers over the loudspeaker is better (absorption of the self induction and/or against EMK)


With Biamping per branch its own output stage is used. That is important the output stages is equivalent (same circuit design and thus resembles sound characteristics). The achievement for the branch of high clay/tone may be clearly smaller however.

Reason:The energy distribution decreases constantly with diaphragm deflection to high frequencies. From 100% of supplied achievement the distribution amounts to on the ranges: Low bass (20-70Hz), bass (70Hz-200Hz), central clay/tone (200Hz-3kHz), high clay/tone (3kHz - > 20kHz) about 40/30/20/10 %.

Notes:

* If the Biwiring possibility is not used, then the often usual metal bridges must be replaced by high-quality wire links, otherwise is to be counted on sound A bosoms.
* Better a good cable without Biwiring, than two inferior cables with Biwiring.
* It is to be usually realized better Biwiring with a cable (with at least 4 isolated veins) than doing without it.


o być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:40

Powklejam kilka rezystorów których brzmienie wyróżnia je z ogółu

Pólka 1: REAL MYSTERY

rezystory tantalowe Shinkoha.
http://www.hificollective..._resistors.html
rezystory tantalowe AN
http://www.hificollective.../tantalums.html
shinkoh_1line.gif










"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

Fotka do tematu: Rezystory,kondensatory,potencjometry,elementy determinujące dzwiek
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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:41

Półka 2: jeszcze sporo magii
HOLCO ,od 0.5%
http://www.hificollective..._resistors.html

RIKEN OHM CARBON FILM RESISTORS
Riken Ohm feature gold plated copper axial leads, 1% tolerance, produced by depositing a thin film of carbon on a ceramic base.These Japanese audiophile resistors are considered by some to be the best for tube audio circuits. These combine the transparency of a good metal film with the warmth of vintage carbon composition resistors without the noise and drift


o być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:42
Kiwame Carbon
These are an excellent match for Hi-End Audio. Kiwame resistors are characterized by lower noise than metal film resistors and a more natural sound. Considerably low thermal noise levels, lower than metal film resistors! Lower distortion artifacts On the other hand they offer true 0.5% tolerance despite their nominal E24-series 5% label ! Their sonic character can be briefly described as follows : Effortless reproduction ('non fatique') subjectively perceived as an increase of headroom. Extensive neutrality.
http://www.octave-electro...ts/kiwame.shtml










"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:43

Caddock
Nie zawsze i nie wszędzie. Ale np w feedback genialne
Bardzo modne ze względu na lansing
http://www.caddock.com/On..._Lit/TypeMK.pdf






"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:45

Półka 3: rezystory do hifi

Dale
Popular choice for D.I.Y. audio projects
Bardzo modne ze względu na atrakcyjną cenę. Porządne brzmienie











"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:47
.

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:48
Allen-Bradley vintage quality composition carbon,
sound very nice, but tolerances are poor, as is temperature stability. Accordingly, it's difficult to get a stereo circuit properly balanced, so imaging will suffer somewhat, compared to the other signal resistor types we recommend . There's also the issue of noise, not objectionable to my ear in most power amp circuits but probably too much for a phono stage? Still, these antique resistors are the most authentic choice for restoration of vintage hi-fi. More than just for authentic looks, they preserve the signature sounds of a bygone era.

Bardzo modne ze względu na atrakcyjną cenę. Trzeba kupować dużo by jakoś podobierać to w pary.
Nie wszyscy wiedzą, że są dwa typy AB; carbon mix i carbon layer. Gra jeden
Warto szukac AB z produkcji militarnej z jednym dodatkowym paskiem tolerancji termicznej
"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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lancaster
(23396/423/2338)
Avatar: lancaster
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:50
stefan, a jak oceniasz weglówki AB ?

'Wiadomo, ze taki a taki pomysl jest nie
do zrealizowania. Ale zyje sobie jakis
nieuk, ktory o tym nie wie. I on wlasnie
dokonuje tego wynalazku.'

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:50
carbon layer










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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:51
carbon mix

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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:53


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lancaster
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Avatar: lancaster
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:53

stefan, dzięki...pytalem a Ty widze wczesniej juz odpowiedziales :)

'Wiadomo, ze taki a taki pomysl jest nie
do zrealizowania. Ale zyje sobie jakis
nieuk, ktory o tym nie wie. I on wlasnie
dokonuje tego wynalazku.'

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:54
Beyschlag tzw "blue"
Prawdopodobnie "absolutely best buy" w rezystorach. Relacja cena-jakość bezkonkurencyjna
Pomijalna cena, znakomita barwa, dobre parametry. Używa go wiele firm w swoich wyrobach nazywanych he (np. tańsze AN ). Tolerancja 1% (0,1% też)


"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:56
Beyschlag professional
"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 12:59
Półka ciekawostek: wybitne a ogólnie mało znane rezystory

Tokyo Koon Denpa (TKD) High Precision Metal Film Resistor
(Approved by the Defense Agency of Japan)
Mozna je znaleźć w grubych "klockach










"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:00
MK3 i MK8 Roederstein
już nie produkowane, 1%



o być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:01
Ładnie grają




"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:02
bywały w grubych niemcach


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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:04
PRP
metal film resistor is specifically designed for audio applications. The special construction features flat frequency response, low noise (thermal EMF), and non-magnetic leads/end caps. Every resistor is tested for noise during the QC process. The leads are Tin plated OFHC 22 AWG. Tolerance is better than 1%; TC is better than 50ppm/°C; Rated up to 500VDC;
"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:04
Rhopoint components
rezystory precyzyjne Metal Foil epoxy coated, specjalizowane do audio
ideal for use at higher audio frequencies precision filtering. Tolerancja od 0,05%. ppm 2,5


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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:05
&#8216;Econistor&#8217;
This resistors gives excellent long term stability over temperature and time. Resistance winding is reversed at the half turns point to minimise inductance and therefore additional noise to the audio signal.
tol. 0.1% do 0.01% . ppm 3. specjalizowane do audio

Rezystorów wybitnych, a nieznanych jest sporo więcej .


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stefanB
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WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:07

VITROHM, PBH, HFC.TAF, ICR, VTC (Tantalum), Rohpoint ,IRC, Fukoshima MPC, Skelton, TDO, Mills, Shalcross, Welvyn (RC55), Draloric (dawniej Roederstein)

Fotka do tematu: Rezystory,kondensatory,potencjometry,elementy determinujące dzwiek
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stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:10
Na razie end. C.d.n.


stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 13:59
Rezystory generyczne.
No name. Ze wzgledu na koszta zdominowały niestety współczesną produkcję sprzętu audio i to je można głównie dostać w naszych sklepach i hurtowniach. Maja niby wszystko to co trzeba- metal, 1% albo lepiej, low noice- tyle, ze nie graja.
Sa w dużej mierze (wraz z generic caps) odpowiedzialne za to "dziwne" brzmienie wielu urządzeń ze średniej półki. Za zdjęciami odsyłam do gazetek audio prezentujących wnętrza klocków

Generic metal films, commonly available from ................, etc. are to be avoided, even for economy conscious repairs. Sadly, most new mass market audio components are made with these generic metal films. The bad rap hung on metal films for being "spikey" and "cold" comes, mainly I think, from the sonic character of these cheap resistors. Worse.



"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

piotrsz
(95/12/2334)
Poznań
Avatar: piotrsz
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 18:04
Każdy rezystor ma dwie składowe szumów. Szum termiczny i prądowy.

Szum termiczny jest NIEZALEŻNY od technologii wykonania. Jego wartość wąskopasmowa jest funkcją temperatury i rezystancji. Im większa temperatura tym większy szum. Im większa wartość rezystancji tym większy szum. W temperaturze 0 st Kelvina szum termiczny znika całkowicie. Wartość podawana w nV/sqrt(Hz).

Szum prądowy jest ZALEŻNY od technologii wykonania i przyłożonego napięcia. Podawana wartość w uV/V (to nie pomyłka jest w uV/V) lub dBu (0dBu odpowiada szum 1uV/V). Najlepsze są metalizowane. Ale metalizowany metalizowanemu nierówny.

Najlepsze są metalizowane z CHROMONIKIELINY. Najniższe szumy prądowe są dla rezystancji do 100kOhm. Powyżej 100 kOhm szumy prądowe rosną (powyżej 1 MOhm znacząco) dla wszystkich metalizowanych w tym także tych z chromonikieliny.

Orientacyjna cena jednostkowa rezystora z chromonikieliny 0.6W i współ. temp. 200ppm/stC:

Technologia przewlekana:
5 gr dla 1 szt.
2 gr dla 1000 szt.

Dla SMD: ok. 30-40 zł / 10000 szt.

dla współczynnika temperaturowego 15ppm/stC (w audio mało gdzie przydatna, chyba, że ktoś usłyszy różnicę w natężeniu dzwięku na poziomie 0.01dB :-)

Firma "highendowa" na taśmie dopisze swoją nazwę i kilka zer z prawej strony ceny.

firmy ROYAL OHM, ROEDESTEIN, KOA, VISHAY, itp., itd., ..., bez różnicy w brzmieniu. Byle były metalizowane i z chromonikieliny.

piotrsz

PS. 99% z Was w ślepym teście nie rozróżniłaby metalizowanego i najgorszego węglowego w pętli sprzężenia zwrotnego. Ale powtarzam w ślepym teście a nie tak, że wiecie co przed chwilą wpieliście w obwód.

Ja to przerabiałem ze zdejmowaniem pułapki rezonansowej na 7kHz na metalowym Seasie. Znajomy audiofil miał 50/50 trafień. Harmoniczne lecą z ułamków na kilka procent a rozróżnić ciężko.

piotrsz
(95/12/2334)
Poznań
Avatar: piotrsz
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-28 / 18:05
Każdy rezystor ma dwie składowe szumów. Szum termiczny i prądowy.

Szum termiczny jest NIEZALEŻNY od technologii wykonania. Jego wartość wąskopasmowa jest funkcją temperatury i rezystancji. Im większa temperatura tym większy szum. Im większa wartość rezystancji tym większy szum. W temperaturze 0 st Kelvina szum termiczny znika całkowicie. Wartość podawana w nV/sqrt(Hz).

Szum prądowy jest ZALEŻNY od technologii wykonania i przyłożonego napięcia. Podawana wartość w uV/V (to nie pomyłka jest w uV/V) lub dBu (0dBu odpowiada szum 1uV/V). Najlepsze są metalizowane. Ale metalizowany metalizowanemu nierówny.

Najlepsze są metalizowane z CHROMONIKIELINY. Najniższe szumy prądowe są dla rezystancji do 100kOhm. Powyżej 100 kOhm szumy prądowe rosną (powyżej 1 MOhm znacząco) dla wszystkich metalizowanych w tym także tych z chromonikieliny.

Orientacyjna cena jednostkowa rezystora z chromonikieliny 0.6W i współ. temp. 200ppm/stC:

Technologia przewlekana:
5 gr dla 1 szt.
2 gr dla 1000 szt.

Dla SMD: ok. 30-40 zł / 10000 szt.

dla współczynnika temperaturowego 15ppm/stC (w audio mało gdzie przydatna, chyba, że ktoś usłyszy różnicę w natężeniu dzwięku na poziomie 0.01dB :-)

Firma "highendowa" na taśmie dopisze swoją nazwę i kilka zer z prawej strony ceny.

firmy ROYAL OHM, ROEDESTEIN, KOA, VISHAY, itp., itd., ..., bez różnicy w brzmieniu. Byle były metalizowane i z chromonikieliny.

piotrsz

PS. 99% z Was w ślepym teście nie rozróżniłaby metalizowanego i najgorszego węglowego w pętli sprzężenia zwrotnego. Ale powtarzam w ślepym teście a nie tak, że wiecie co przed chwilą wpieliście w obwód.

Ja to przerabiałem ze zdejmowaniem pułapki rezonansowej na 7kHz na metalowym Seasie. Znajomy audiofil miał 50/50 trafień. Harmoniczne lecą z ułamków na kilka procent a rozróżnić ciężko.

a_men
(716/20/2332)
Avatar: a_men
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 00:08
>StefanB
A co z Case?

GRADO__Fan
(296/6/2307)
Avatar: GRADO__Fan
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 01:12
piotrsz,

W analogówce CD wymiana z węglowych na metalizowane Tesle czy Dale przynosi bardzo wyraźną poprawę w przejrzystości. Słychać rzeczy, których wcześniej nie było, więc bez przesady

gagacek
(189/1/2253)
z wykopalisk
Avatar: gagacek
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 09:32
>> GRADO__Fan,
Nie masz po co tłumaczyć, piotrsz jest znanym teoretykiem-gawędziarzem:) Inna znana jego publikacja to stopnie wyjściowe DAC - teoria będąca wybitnym zaprzeczeniem praktyki.

madly
(118/0/2301)
Gdańsk
Avatar: madly
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 12:54
StefanB - dzięki i brawo za obszerne i wyczerpujące zebranie tematu :-) Gdybyż wszedzie zaczynano w takim stylu ;-)

Z dużą ulgą odetchnąłem widząc, że moje ostatnie zakupy całego typoszeregu 1% "do zabaw DIY" w ilościach nie marginalnych oparły się o właściwe wybory :-) Co za ulga.

Gdzieś wyczytałem dwie "prawdy"/uwagi:
- rezystory o mocach 1, czy 2W brzmią lepiej iż 0,125, czy 0,25W
- lepiej brzmią rezystory precyzyjne o tolerancjach 1% i mniejszych - tłumaczono to koniecznością lepszej selekcji materiałowej i kontroli produkcji.

Prawda to, czy częściowa prawda?

piotrsz
(95/12/2334)
Poznań
Avatar: piotrsz
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 15:54
>> madly

Jedne i drugie twierdzenie jest nieprawdziwe (drugie idiotyczne).

>> gagacek

E tam. Od razu teoretyk-gawędziarz. Trochę wzmacniaczy i kolumn zrobiłem. Teraz męczę (słucham) własne 2.5 drogi na Seasach. Jak ktoś nie wierzy to zapraszam na odsłuch w Poznaniu. Stoją "prawdziwie" nie "teoretycznie". Ale prawda, że audio mnie coraz mniej kręci. Teraz siedzę w automatyce, zdalnym nadzorze procesów przemysłowych, PLC no i w pracy zawodowej od audio daleko (projekty sieci wysokiego napięcia, to w "o mnie" to już dawno nieprawda).

A o tym, że na wyjściu DAC trzeba stosować przy konwersji I/U wzmacniacz a nie lampę czy rezystor to pisze w każdej nocie aplikacyjnej Cirrusa, Burr Brown, Analog Devices, Asashi Kasei, czy co tam jeszcze. A w tych firmach pracują fachowcy i inżynierowie najlepsi na świecie. High End z paroma wyjątkami ściąga głównie nieuków, naciągaczy, mitomanów i zwykłych dyletantów.

Ja nie przeczę, że rezystor na wyjściu sekcji I/U DAC się komuś bardziej podoba niż wzmacniacz. Mi też alu Seas się bardziej podoba niż ScanSpeak pomimo tego, że ten drugi ma trzecią harmoniczną na poziomie -20dB niższym.

A wniosek z tego taki, że ucho ludzkie nie jest w żadnym razie OBIEKTYWNYM źródłem oceny sprzętu.

piotrsz

antos
(104/2/2296)
Pabianice
Avatar: antos
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 21:02
:-) a może trochę bardziej konkretnie gdzie mozna znalez jakieś wybitne rezystory w kraju ew gdzie zamówić...potrzebuję do PVC komplecik. Pasywkę mam już na Dale i nie chciałbym powielać.
Orginalne do Placette Vishay S102 po 10$ ciut za drogie :-) słuchałem Placette kilka razy, moim zdaniem warte tej ceny.

gagacek
(189/1/2253)
z wykopalisk
Avatar: gagacek
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 22:15
antos
Jeśli koniecznie chcesz Vishay, to nic za darmo, niestety:(

madly
Rezystory o większych mocach mają mniejsze szumy własne i lepiej brzmią, a precyzja jest tylko precyzją. Oczywiście to moje (i nie tylko) urojenia. Tego i innych rzeczy na studiach nie nauczyli, prawda Piotrze? Dlatego współczesny sprzęt zazwyczaj jest taki jaki jest, czyli podły. Pozdrowienia!

Artuch
(167/0/2243)
Poznań
Avatar: Artuch
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 22:16
Fajnie by było gdyby przy okazji podawać dobre i sprawdzone żródła takich rezystorów. Wiem że na Allegro można pewnie coś dostać i na giełdach ale myśle że każda informacja jest cenna.

josef
(529/2/2338)
Kraków
Avatar: josef
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 22:26
można zacząć od tego http://www.rezystory.net/

majkel
(6749/46/2335)
earstream.eu
Avatar: majkel
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-29 / 22:36
Przecież te, co mają w TME 1% 0.6W metalizowane są całkiem na temat, no chyba że ktoś potrzebuje grzałkę do lampiaka albo kolumn, to wtedy trzeba wziąć jakieś droższe firmówki. W detalu metalizowane chodzą po 10-15gr. O ile słyszę poprawę względem węglowej taniochy, to między różnymi metalizowanymi jakoś usłyszeć nie mogę.

zoltar7
(1309/18/2338)
Wawa
Avatar: zoltar7
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-30 / 01:13
>> GRADO__Fan, 2008-08-29 01:12:58

>W analogówce CD wymiana z węglowych na metalizowane Tesle czy Dale przynosi bardzo wyraźną poprawę w przejrzystości.
>Słychać rzeczy, których wcześniej nie było, więc bez przesady

Może to słychać te Tesle i Dale ;-)



GRADO__Fan
(296/6/2307)
Avatar: GRADO__Fan
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-30 / 18:12
Inaczej - wcześniej było słychać te weglowe

ZORRO
(53/2/2285)
Avatar: ZORRO
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 09:58
Osobiscie w 90% stosuje glownie Beyschlagi metalizowane 1% .
Link do bardzo dobrego sklepu internetowego , mozna kupic je tez bezposrednio w siedzibie firmy w Piasecznie k/Warszawy

http://www.sklep.dacpol.com.pl/?page=Products&;cid=126&from=

Minimalna ilosc jednej wartosci to 10szt za 1,2-1,5zl , w zaleznosci od rezystancji .
Do wyboru z przewlekanych sa miniaturowe 0,4W , standard 0,6W oraz 1W.
W zakladce -Rezystory metalizowane precyzyjne- chyba jest blad , tolerancja powinna wynosic 0,1% ,nie widze uzazadnenia w stosowaniu tak precyzyjnych rezystorow ,chyba ze ktos buduje urzadzenia pomiarowe.



ZORRO
(53/2/2285)
Avatar: ZORRO
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 10:12
Info dla milosnikow dobrych brandow , dla niektorych "no name" nigdy nie gra dobrze :)))
Beyschlag byl kiedys wlasnosia BCcomponents ktora to nalezala do Philipsa a obecnie jest w rekach amerykanskiego Vishaya .Ten ostatni skupil juz chyba wszystkie najlepsze firmy produkujace elementy pasywne .
Tak wyglada globalizacja ....


zoltar7
(1309/18/2338)
Wawa
Avatar: zoltar7
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 10:22
Na allegro Beyschlag są po 1,83 za 20 szt. Z tym że dochodzą koszty wysyłki.

zoltar7
(1309/18/2338)
Wawa
Avatar: zoltar7
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 10:32
>> ZORRO, 2008-08-31 10:12:02
>Info dla milosnikow dobrych brandow , dla niektorych "no name" nigdy nie gra dobrze :)))
Beyschlag byl kiedys wlasnosia BCcomponents ktora to nalezala do Philipsa a obecnie jest w rekach amerykanskiego Vishaya .Ten ostatni skupil juz chyba wszystkie najlepsze firmy produkujace elementy pasywne .
Tak wyglada globalizacja ....

No nie zupełnie, bo Vishay jest dopiero na 3 miejscu wśród producentów elementów biernych cały czas są przed nim Murata Manufacturing i EPCOS :))
Tak wygląda globalizacja...

zoltar7
(1309/18/2338)
Wawa
Avatar: zoltar7
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 10:44
Osobiście poleam też rezystory tajwańskie rezystory YAGEO 0,6W 1% 50ppm po 80gr za 10 szt.
tutaj: http://www.seguro.pl/sklep/?limit_od=20&;podkat=11&producent=&k_prod=
Podobno stosuje je SONY... chociaż to nie jest pewna informacja.


ZORRO
(53/2/2285)
Avatar: ZORRO
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-08-31 / 12:38
Zoltar
Nie chodzilo mi o wielkosc podukcji ale o ilosc przejec innych firm przez Vishaya . To jest chyba globalizacja a nie budowa nowych fabryk w Azji przez Murate lub Epcosa.



lancaster
(23396/423/2338)
Avatar: lancaster
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-09-26 / 09:15
stefan, jakbys był w okolicy to nie mogę się doczekac kontynuacji wątku :)


'Wiadomo, ze taki a taki pomysl jest nie
do zrealizowania. Ale zyje sobie jakis
nieuk, ktory o tym nie wie. I on wlasnie
dokonuje tego wynalazku.'

cypher
(252/6/2310)
Gdynia
Avatar: cypher
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-09-30 / 13:02
Panowie gdzie w polandzie prócz rezystory.net można kupować te "dobre" rezystory do audio ?

stefanB
(167/10/2336)
Avatar: stefanB
WYŚLIJ PW
2008-11-12 / 11:43
A może o drucikach? Jakieś tipy?






Signalkabel and your characteristics

The electrical music signal consists of a mixture of rivers (electron movement) of different frequency (5 Hz-100 kHz) and amplitude (1 well - 1 mA and/or with loudspeakers to 10 A), which must at the same time pass (in correct temporal relationship = phase) the cable.

Periodical parameter:

Every time two leaders to be parallel led a parallel capacitance C develops (in pF/m). Stromdurchflpossene leaders thus always develop a magnetic field and a longitudinal inductance L (in &#181;H/m). These provide for a nonlinear envelope delay within the transmission range (approx. 5 cycles per second - 100 kHz), i.e. signal stream of different frequencies need different times around the cable to happen. Hence that impulses are worn, the rendition follows inhomogenously and the spatial illustration becomes indistinct. A further periodical phenomenon contributing to it is the skin effect. In a leader current portions with high frequencies are pushed to the surface of the leader, this lead likewise to envelope delay distortions.

Frequency-independent parameters:

(Approximately) the frequency-independent characteristics of a cable are the longitudinal resistance R (in mOhm/m) and the parallel conductance G (in &#181;S/m). They represent the dissipation factors (Dissipations Factor) of the line (Ds=R/Omega*L and Dq=G/Omega*C), which should be as small as possible together with L and C. To neglect thereby the losses of the insulator (dielectric) are not infinitely high that, and is more exactly regarded also not frequency-independent!

The insulator is permanently in the electrical alternating field (between the two leaders, Poland). The molecules of the insulator are moved with the field change (pole reversal) and polarized thus (material-dependent dielectric constant). These material shifts withdraw from the music signal energy (dielectric dissipation factor) periodically, since this procedure cannot run off infinitely fast.

Polyethylene (SPE), usually foamed, teflon (ptfe) and air is suitable, there the dissipation factor (tangent delta) small and hardly a capacity increase took place as dielectric very well (this is desired only with the element condenser). The insulator PVC frequently used with cables is conceivably badly suitable. The dissipation factor is high, the free electrons of the material provides for zero crossover distortions, the leader chemically is attacked (free hello genes), but it is economical. Foamed Polyuretan (PURE), which in inexpensive Coaxkabeln is often used, is a good compromise.
Exotic Isolationen is manufactured from silk or untreated cotton.

By suggestion of the cable with sound a modulation finds instead of (Mikrofonie). I.e. the opposite ladder can be moved in the distance to each other in the clock of the music slightly, which leads volume-dependent modulation of the signal to the change of capacity and thus to frequency and.

The technical data:

With Interconect cables the capacity is with approx. 50-100 pF/m (in exceptions until approx. 1000 pF), the Induktität in the Größenordung of 0,3-1 &#181;H/m, the resistance with 20-100 mOhm/m the conductance with approx. 0.01-1 &#181;S/m (the conductance Siemens is the reciprocal value of the resistance). The characteristic impedance can be computed from L and C:
Z = root (L/C), e.g.: L=0.4&#924;H, C=70pF - > Z=75Ohm.
With loudspeaker cables inductance should not exceed 0.1-0.5 &#181;H/m and the resistance 50 mOhm/m.

The capacity of a cable rises with the size of the surface and with the reduction of the distance of the two leaders to each other.
With inductance is it exactly turned around, the further and the back leader remove lie apart, the more largely is inductance. The resistance depends on the resistivity of the used leader material (with silver smallest) and on the cross section (the more largely the smaller). The best leader silver, has better conductivity in relation to copper one approx. 15%. The derivative value and/or isolation value depends on the used dielectric. The insulator has a Ohm's resistance from some mega to Giga ohms.

Näherungsformeln: a=Abstand (center to center) in mm, D, D=kleiner, large diameter in mm
Twin lead without screen:
C [pF/m] = 12 * etar/log (2a/d)
L [&#181;H/m] = 0.92*log (2a/d)
Coaxleitung:
C [pF/m] = 24,1 * etar/log (D/d)
L [&#181;H/m] = 0.46*log (D/d)
Line resistance:
R [mOhm*m/mm &#178;] = Kupfer=17.8, silver =16.5 e.g. 3 m with 2,5 mm &#178; Kufer = 21.4 mOhm (with 20 degrees C)

Dielectric | Constant one (etar) | Dissipation factor (tangent delta)
PVC 5-8 0.1-0.15
PURELY 3-4 0.015-0.06
PE 2.3 0.0005
Ptfe 2 0.0002-0.0005
Silk 1.4 < 0.0005
Air 1 < 0.00001

The total characteristic of the cable:

This becomes by the structure: Arrangement of the leaders (coaxially, parallel, cross-interconnected, twisted, intertwined&#8230;), distance of the leaders to each other, with or without screen and the materials: Material (copper, silver, Goldlegierung), kind of the leader Lizte or massif, degree of purity and/or crystalline structure (normal, OFC, PCOCC, 6..8N copper, 4N or 5N pure silver), electrical resistance, insulating material (dielectric: PVC, PE, PP, teflon (ptfe), silicone, lacquers, fabrics), microphone IE sensitivity of the gesammten arrangement and skin effect with to large cable diameter (diameter <0.8mm, or flat line) determines.

The goal:

As balanced a relationship of the parameters as possible to each other (R/L=G/C) minimize the Widergabefehler. Unfortunately this is nearly impossible, since the parameters affect each other mutually and the source and the load must be also still considered. Experiences have shown that NF-small signal-cables (Interconect cables) as low a capacity as possible and as low an inductance as possible with at the same time low Ohm's resistance should exhibit loudspeaker cable (NF-Großsignalkabel).

A screen when NF-lines is not necessarily necessary with high level connections (CD - > amplifiers). For very small signals, like them with pick-ups the rule are (< 0.5mV), and with HF-transmission is however necessary they. With high frequency signals the screen must be very close and reciprocally attached. Hum troubles (magnetic fields) could be achieved only by ferrousmagnetic screen (ferrousmagnetic materials e.g. iron). Better a reasonable uncoupling is, i.e. far away from Trafos and mains and as short as possible and no loops moves.

With the coaxial cable the signal is carried via the interior leader and the screen, that cannot fulfill thus their function as screen to no more. The use of parallel-symmetrical cables with additional screen is better. The screen is then connected at the source side directly with mass and at the Empängerseite by a 10Ohm resistance. On one side do not as only as possible attach (bag screen), this can to HF-receipt lead!

Additionally with loudspeaker cables a low Ohm's resistance (high cross sections of the cable) affects the break-even factor (control of the amplifier of the loudspeakers). Low = high absorption = controlled, dry bass against gift!

Plant-caused sound differences:

Always also the output impedance of the transmitter (Za) and the feed impedance of the receiver (CPU) has a strong influence on the transmission circuit. The output resistance of equipment (RA) must be larger as low as possible and the input impedance and/or load resistance (RH) in the factor at least 100 (over match, break-even factor highly). Both should be as frequency-independent as possible.
A frequency independence with loudspeakers does not let itself avoid unfortunately, as constant a impedance process as possible however always is from advantage. Here one can hope only for a cleanly designed frequency switch!

With preamplifiers and sources of music the practicable value of the output resistance (RA) is with 10-100 ohms with final stages should not it 0,1 ohms not exceed (the lower so much the better!). The input impedance (RH) of receivers naturally lies between 10-50 kOhm (the smaller so much the better!). The inductance and capacity of the exit should be möglichtst small!
Unfortunately are not the values, as with the HF-technology usually, fixed in a standard. Some sources of program have an output resistance of 2000Ohm, the output resistance of a tube final stage can some ohms amount to, which means strong negative interactions with the cable!!

The output resistance (RA) of the source forms a low-pass filter together with the cable capacitance (Ck) and the entrance capacity (Cp) of the receiver. fG = 1 (6.28*Ra*Ck+Cp) example: Ra=2kOhm, Ck+Cp=2nF - > critical frequency fG ~ 40 kHz.

Often the source has an output ouple condenser and the receiver an entrance ouple condenser (AC coupling).
The two condensers (approx., Ce) are positioned by the Signalkabel connected in series. This causes that the resulting value changes. The new capacity is smaller: Cn = Ca*Ce/(Ca+Ce). This can shift possibly the lower critical frequency upward (less bass). The new lower critical frequency concerning the input impedance RH amounts to: fG = 1 (6.28*Re*Cn).

Many more badly however, that is the quality (quality, loss angle) of the resulting condenser suffers! (Series connection: Ca+Rk+Lk+Ce). This leads inevitably to losses of fine design and fine dynamics. Thus as always as possible connect DC-DC, DC-AC or AC-DC! During DC DC coupling must be naturally paid attention to DC voltage freedom!

The internal Koppelkondensatoren often are from cheap quality. Often at the exit from place and cost reasons a Elko (approx. 10-100 &#181;F) is inserted, as well as at the entrance (approx. 0.1-4.7 &#181;F) from cost reasons an inexpensive foil condenser (0.15-0.5&#8364;). A high-quality condenser costs tenfold!. Here each quantity sound potential is given away. Bad, strongly lossy condensers change the sound toward soft, less Deteilreichtum (with Elkos) or toward cold with oversubscribed and hard high clay/tone range (with simple foil condensers).

To neglect are not the internal equipment cable connections (e.g. in loudspeaker boxes). These can play a crucial role opposite the external wiring. Often these are together longer than the external wiring, besides of cheap quality, and thus sound killer!

Mass balance stream: The transmitter and receiver are on different mass potential flow in such a way a balancing current over the cable connection. This river mixes with the signal stream (modulation) and leads to sound changes. A cause is usually mains supply or HF-stray effect.

If at your plant cables with other characteristics sound better or worse,
so can be this because of a compensation of opposite characteristics.
With each error minimization a cable will bring klangliche advantages to the chain with neutral, highly detailed rendition however.

Digital transmission circuits:

Here the problems lie somewhat differently, there here square wave signals with constant amplitude (0,5 V with S/P-DIF, approx. 3-7 V with AES/EBU) and frequency (5,6 MHz with CD, 11,2 MHz with DVD) with fast flanks (approx. 5-30 LV) to be transferred must count here characteristics such as HF-range, low capacity, wave running time, good screen and characteristic impedance (root (L/C)).

The range should not be as high as possible around the square wave signal to affect. At HF (high frequency) must be worked with characteristic impedance adjustment. The source exit, the cable with the plugs and the source entrance must exhibit the same values (with digital audio 75 and/or 110 ohms). Deviations can lead to reflections and thus to intermodulation with the consequence of phase jitters. Silvered copper Koaxkabel, with substantial or as braid (StaCu) implemented interior leader and teflon isolation proved as very positive. On the screen under no circumstances (CE), there otherwise HF up to 250MHz (harmonic waves) may to do without to be radiated here be able. These are caught by other HIFI devices and by intermodulation develop rattle/clink!
The sound differences by digital cables are to be attributed probably mainly to different jitter characteristics. Which leads with a digital cable mainly to jitters (mismatching, is to small range, envelope delay distortions, Mikrofonie, memory effects by dielectric losses&#8230;), still weitestgehends unclearly. Ready-made solutions there are not unfortunately, there helps only heard also here. (- > further information)

Other sound influences:

In both worlds the plug connectors are not negligible! Characteristics such as contact transition resistance, boundary layers by material transitions (brass nickel gold), soldered connections, capacity and inductance, as well as ferrousmagnetic characteristics change likewise the sound.
With digital cables the Cinch plug not specified after characteristic impedance (<> 75 ohms) can contribute to which is also an falseadapted Koaxkabel (e.g. 50Ohm) of advantage. The BNC plug connector usual in the HF-measuring technique is more professional (- > see also digital exit).

Cables need to reach a bringing in time of approx. 30-45 minutes around their full efficiency.
(Information to the cause: Mikration, solvent core, grain boundaries, polar impurities, tribochemische influence,&#8230;)

Why cables from purest copper or pure silver?

Generally the effect is neglected that smallest (predominantly high frequency) rivers by cable impurities it lost go and/or are affected! This effect is similar to the neutral zones with semiconductors (assumption distortions with final stages).
This becomes understandable, if one regards the order of magnitude. With transmission dynamics of 90 railways the smallest rivers amount to with NF-cables approx. 100 well and with loudspeaker lines approx. 100 &#181;A (0.0000001..0.0001 A).
These impurities are: Oxidation - > copper/silver crystal transitions, foreign atoms: Oxygen, free atoms in the Isolator-> of diffusion effects in the cable.

The molecules of leader materials have a crystal structure. The flowing through river must overcome the grain boundaries, which leads to losses. The same is valid for other impurities.

Due to its mechanical production line (crystalline structure) cables possess a direction of travel. Normally this is with an arrow away from the source marked. This is not the case, or from distrust, and/or curiosity can be determined this also by hearing tests.

Cables are in the smaller measure also Mikrofonieanfällig. In sound field the ladder are squeezed together, which changes the capacity.

The inhomogeneity of the current distribution rises with the cross section of the leader. A cause: The electrons urge under the self-magnetic field outward.

Static loading of the insulator can likewise lead to the sound influence.

Loudspeaker wiring:

Whether Biwiring (4-adrig) should or conventionally two-vein, at the rendition chain is tested. With Biwiring the frequency switch is divided into two branches (bass and high clay/tone), which are separately led up to the amplifier. So different specialized cable types can be used however with as same a sound characteristics as possible (identical Design) and the amplifiers see quasi over each cable a loudspeaker chassis with its switch. We made thereby best experiences.

The clear advantages from Biwiring are:

* The signal to the high clay/tone range is free from modulation effects (intermodulation) under the higher river of the bass range. I.e. the smaller and higher-frequency river of the Hochtöners cannot, as it is with a normal wiring the case from the bass signal, due to which common ground wire is modulated.
* With separately moved cables for deep and high clay/tone range also still the magnetic ouple effects (magnetic cross modulation) are void.
* Control amplifiers over the loudspeaker is better (absorption of the self induction and/or against EMK)


With Biamping per branch its own final stage is used. That is important the final stages is equivalent (same circuit design and thus resembles sound characteristics). The achievement for the branch of high clay/tone may be clearly smaller however.

Reason: The energy distribution decreases constantly with diaphragm deflection to high frequencies. From 100% of supplied achievement the distribution amounts to on the ranges: Low bass (20-70Hz), bass (70Hz-200Hz), central clay/tone (200Hz-3kHz), high clay/tone (3kHz - >20kHz) about 40/30/20/10%.

Notes:

* If the Biwiring possibility is not used, then the often usual metal bridges must be replaced by high-quality wire links, otherwise is to be counted on sound A BOSOMs.
* Better a good cable without Biwiring, than two inferior cables with Biwiring.
* It is to be usually realized better Biwiring with a cable (with at least 4 isolated veins) than doing without it.


to further information


Symmetrical or asymmetrical signal transmission?

During symmetrical transmission the signal in normal phase position becomes (+) and parallel to it a signal inverted (-) transmit. The mass serves only the screen. Everyone this from the studio technology coming XLR signal lines has two equal interior leaders and a screen. The goal can be attained a higher interference suppression, since this both interior leaders affect and waive themselves thus largest even. Further the danger is mass disturbances (loops) arises smaller.

A condition for it is however that the source exit and receiver entrance in each case doubles (symmetrically) to be present must. The quality of interference suppression depends on the &#8220;equality&#8221; of these circuits. I.E. the output and initially impedance (R + C), reinforcement, range, running time etc. of positive and negative branch same characteristics must, but accurately 180° opposite phase position to exhibit, what to high frequencies becomes ever more difficult.
Not symmetrical characteristics such as noise and rattle/clink and other sound-affecting parameters do not waive themselves unfortunately not, but increase. Besides the expenditure and thus the price are higher.

Inverting the exit is often reached by a concatenation. The inverted signal goes through thus two stages, while the non-inverting goes through only one stage. The quality (interference suppression) of the symmetrical entrance depends on its sum-and-difference amplifier qualities (common mode rejection factor, range) and can generally only with operation amplifiers be realised.

During often used pseudosymmetrical interconnecting of a symmetrical cable with Cinch plugs the screen is attached only on one side (bag screen), which become both identical interior leaders as signal leaders and mass used. This kind of the wiring became generally accepted in relation to the coaxial structure for NF (Koaxkabel are intended actually only for HF transmission).

Completely symmetric signal processing:

In the above mentioned case the equipment out and entrances (usually additional) are symmetriert, while the remainder of the circuit remains asymmetrically. During completely symmetric signal processing also the since transformation and reinforcement are laid out symmetrically. I.e. in the DAC and/or CD players, in the preamplifier and in the final stage (bridge connection) are developed in each case two branches per channel (inverts and not-inverts). This variant is to be found from cost reasons only very rarely.

In like far this expenditure in klanglicher improvement, is like always on a consistent (as error free ones as possible) conversion dependent and naturally also a question of cost settles.
Better a good asymmetrical exit as a pseudosymmetrical exit realised for advertising-effective reasons with cheap construction units.





"Wszystko powinno być zrobione maksymalnie prosto, ale nie prościej"-A. Einstein

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